North American solution for Barrow winter

     The North American solution for Barrow winter is shown below in red italic. It fails handily, and confirms our long-held conclusions that North American is not a major sources of Arctic haze, at least at the surface.

Barrow, Alaska, winter

22 elements

19 elements


Arctic solution

European solution

Arctic solution

North American solution

East Asian solution

Step 0 Nothing chosen Nothing chosen
Step 2 Sea and best crust (FEC) chosen, fit 8.59 Sea and best crust (FEC) chosen, fit 7.64
Step 3 Norway added, fit 2.42 Laptev added, fit 0.94 Norway added, fit 1.18 Akron added, fit 3.26 Ube added, fit 2.98
Step 4   North Sea added, fit 0.71 Bear Island added, fit 0.75 Sudbury added, fit 2.69 Seoul added, fit 2.49
Step 5   TransEur added, fit 0.69 Ny-Ålesund added, fit 0.66 West Point Added, fit 2.34 Oku winter added, fit 1.80
Step 6       DCref added, fit 1.92  

    We begin by repeating the figure for step 2 so as to show the justification for pursuing a North American solution. It is weak, and should give poor results.

    Step 3 adds Akron, with the highest of the North American F-ratios. It produces a fit of 3.26, which is still poor.

    Step 4 adds the highest remaining NA source, Sudbury. It improves the fit modestly, to 2.69.

    Step 5 adds the bet remaining NA source, West Point. The fit improves modestly, to a still-unacceptable 2.34.

    Step 6 adds the type-source DCref (refuse incineration), which again improves the fit modestly, to 1.92. The North American thread stops here with a poor fit. Again note the high Arctic F-ratios waiting in the wings.

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